Nagara Style Temple Architecture: Masterpieces in Stone

Nagara Style Temple Architecture stands as a testament to ancient India’s rich cultural and architectural heritage. Rooted in Hinduism, these temples are characterised by their towering spires, intricate carvings, and symbolic representations. The meticulous craftsmanship and symbolic design principles embedded in Nagara temples make them an enduring testament to the convergence of art and divinity. This article will delve into the fascinating world of Nagara style temple architecture, exploring its history, characteristics, and significance.

Nagara Style Temple Architecture
Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho-Prime example of Nagara style temple architecture; Wikimedia Commons

Origins and Evolution of Nagara Style Temples

The Nagara style of temple architecture originated around the 5th century AD, with prominent regions of influence including Northern India, Karnataka, and parts of Madhya Pradesh. Interestingly, the Nagara style is not confined to a specific period, evolving and adapting over centuries, showcasing the dynamic nature of Indian temple architecture. It flourished during the Gupta dynasty and continued to evolve through various regional kingdoms and empires that ruled over the northern parts of India. The word “Nagara” itself means “city,” underscoring the temple style’s close association with urban architectural principles.

The Nagara style temples display a unique blend of indigenous elements and influences from central Asia. It is characterized by its tower-like spires, known as “shikhara,” which rise vertically, symbolizing the sacred mountain, Meru. This temple style of architecture is closely associated with the Shaivite and Vaishnavite sects of Hinduism, reflecting their spiritual aspirations.

Nagara Style Temple Layout and Planning:

The layout of Nagara style temples follows a distinct pattern, reflecting the cosmic order and the journey of the soul towards liberation. The layout and planning of Nagara temples are a meticulous orchestration of architectural elements, each contributing to the overall harmony and symbolism of the sacred space.

Nagara Style Temple Architecture
Longitudinal section of a Nagara style temple; Wikimedia Commons

A Typical plan of Nagara style temple; Wikimedia Commons

1. Vastu Purusha Mandala:

At the core of Nagara temple design is the concept of Vastu Purusha Mandala, a sacred diagram representing the cosmic man. The temple’s plan is aligned with this mandala, ensuring that the deity’s sanctum aligns with the cosmic forces. This alignment reflects the belief that the temple is a microcosm of the universe, establishing a cosmic resonance.

2. Garbhagriha (Sanctum Sanctorum):

The sanctum sanctorum, or garbhagriha, is the innermost and holiest chamber where the principal deity resides. Often square, this chamber is a symbol of the womb of creation. The placement of the deity within this sacred space is meticulously calculated to maintain harmony with cosmic energies.

3. Pradakshina Patha (Circumambulation):

Around the garbhagriha, there is a circumambulatory path called the pradakshina patha. This path allows devotees to walk in a clockwise direction around the deity, as a symbolic act of paying respect, seeking blessings, and expressing devotion. The pradakshina patha may be enclosed within the temple or form an outer pathway surrounding the main temple complex. It is believed that circumambulation harmonizes the individual with the divine and creates a spiritual connection.

4. Vimana (Tower):

The Vimana, or tower, is the crowning glory of Nagara temples. The shikhara, as the main spire, represents Mount Meru, the mythical abode of the gods. The elevation of the Vimana is structured to symbolize the ascent from the earthly realm to the celestial plane, creating a visual narrative of the soul’s journey towards spiritual awakening.

5. Mandapa (Congregation Hall):

The mandapa, or congregation hall, serves as a communal space for rituals, gatherings, and celebrations. Supported by intricately carved pillars, the mandapa’s design is often open, allowing devotees to participate in ceremonies. The pillars themselves are adorned with sculptures depicting deities, mythological narratives, and celestial beings, contributing to the immersive spiritual experience.

6. Antarala (Vestibule):

The antarala acts as a transitional space between the garbhagriha and the mandapa. It serves both functional and symbolic purposes, symbolizing the journey from the material to the divine. The antarala may house additional deities or intricate sculptures, further enhancing the spiritual ambience.

7. Ardhamandapa (Entrance Porch):

The ardhamandapa, or entrance porch, serves as the threshold between the external world and the sacred interior. Often featuring ornate pillars and intricate carvings, the ardhamandapa is a visual prelude to the architectural splendour within. Devotees traverse this space as they enter the sanctified realm of the temple.

8. Peripheral Structures:

Surrounding the central shrine are often smaller shrines and subsidiary structures, creating a complex architectural ensemble. These structures, known as subsidiary shrines or parivara devatas, pay homage to various deities associated with the main deity. The arrangement of these structures follows a harmonious pattern, contributing to the overall visual appeal of the temple complex.

Regional Variations of Nagara Style Temples

While the Nagara style of temple architecture exhibits certain fundamental characteristics, it also displays regional variations that reflect the diversity of India’s cultural landscape. Here are some prominent regional variations of the Nagara style temples:

1. Orissan Nagara

Nagara Style Temple Architecture
Konark Sun Temple in Orissa, an example of Orissan Nagara style temple architecture; Wikimedia Commons

The Orissan Nagara style is characterized by its towering shikhara and exquisite stone carvings. The temples of Bhubaneswar, Puri, and Konark in the state of Odisha exemplify this style. The temples showcase intricate depictions of deities, mythical creatures, dancers, and musicians. The sculptures communicate a sense of dynamic movement, evoking a sense of life and vitality.

2. Gujarati Nagara

Nagara Style Temple Architecture
Somnath Temple, Gujarat, an example of Gujarati Nagara style temple architecture; Wikimedia Commons

The Gujarati Nagara style is known for its elegance and simplicity. Temple complexes in the state of Gujarat, such as the Sun Temple in Modhera and the famous Somnath Temple, highlight this architectural style. The shikhara in Gujarati Nagara temples are relatively modest in height in comparison with their northern counterparts. The emphasis is on the sculptural details and the overall harmony of the temple complex.

3. Rajasthani Nagara

Sun temple of Ranakpur, an example of Rajasthani Nagara style temple architecture; Flickr

The Rajasthani Nagara style incorporates distinctive elements of Rajput architecture, characterized by its fortified walls and ornate entryways. The Dilwara Temples in Mount Abu and the Sun Temple of Ranakpur are shining examples of this style. The exquisite marble carvings and delicate detailing make Rajasthani Nagara temples a visual treat, leaving visitors spellbound with their intricate beauty.

4. Karnataka Nagara

Virupaksha temple in Hampi, an example of Karnataka Nagara style temple architecture; Image Credits:

Southern Nagara temples may have a more subdued and tapering shikhara compared to their northern counterparts. The emphasis is often on detailed carvings on pillars and walls, depicting scenes from mythology. The Virupaksha Temple in Hampi and the Lepakshi Veerabhadra Temple are notable Nagara style temples in the south.

5. Central Indian Nagara (Madhya Pradesh)

Nagara Style Temple Architecture
Lakshmana temple in Khajuraho, an example of Central Indian Nagara style temple architecture; Wikimedia Commons

Central Indian temples often feature a variety of spire shapes, including the stepped shikhara. The sculptures focus on a wide range of themes, including mythological narratives, daily life, and spiritual pursuits. The Khajuraho Group of Monuments, including the Lakshmana Temple, exemplifies the Nagara style in Central India.

Nagara Style Temples in India

Now let’s look at the architectural details of two famous Nagara style temples: the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple in Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh) and the Jagdish Temple in Udaipur (Rajasthan).

1. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho:

Nagara Style Temple Architecture
Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho; Image Credits:

Architectural Style:

  • Exemplary 11th-century Nagara architecture by the Chandela dynasty.
  • Towering shikhara with intricate spires and elaborate external carvings.

Sculptures and Carvings:

  • Thousands of sculptures depict deities, celestial beings, and explicit scenes.
  • Artistic finesse and elaborate narrative quality.

Mandapa and Entrance Porch:

  • Spacious mandapa with ornate pillars for gatherings.
  • Ardhamandapa serves as a transition zone with beautifully carved pillars.


  • Represents the cosmic axis (Mount Meru) and the soul’s spiritual journey.
  • Intricate carvings convey philosophical and mythological narratives.

2. Jagdish Temple, Udaipur:

Nagara Style Temple Architecture
Jagdish temple in Udaipur; Image Credits:

Architectural Style:

  • 17th-century Nagara architecture in Udaipur, Rajasthan.
  • Three-storied pyramidal shikhara in white marble.

Mandapa and Pillars:

  • Ornate pillars supporting a grand mandapa.
  • Space for gatherings, rituals, and cultural events.

Carvings and Sculptures:

  • Detailed carvings depict Hindu mythology and epic narratives.
  • Friezes with musicians, dancers, and floral patterns.


  • Reflects traditional Hindu temple design principles.
  • Emphasizes the cosmic axis and the sacred abode for Lord Vishnu.           

The Nagara style temple architecture stands as a testament to India’s rich cultural tapestry and its deep spiritual roots. Its grandeur, symbolism, and regional variations make it a captivating subject for exploration and study. Understanding this architectural style’s underlying philosophy and significance enhances our appreciation for the craftsmanship and devotion that went into creating these magnificent structures.

In architectural ingenuity, Nagara Style Temple Architecture emerges as a sublime fusion of spiritual ideology and artistic finesse. The towering shikharas, intricate carvings, and precisely planned layouts of these temples not only serve as architectural landmarks but also as profound symbols of India’s cultural and religious legacy. As we marvel at the enduring magnificence of Nagara style temples, we recognize them not just as stone structures but as timeless embodiments of the architectural genius that continues to inspire and awe across the epochs.

Content Writing And Research By: Ar. Kiran Rathi

Humble abode named after a cottage in Dandaka Forest built by Lord Rama | RSAA Studio

‘कुटीरम्’ in Sanskrit is a humble abode named after a cottage in Dandaka forest built by Lord Rama, Lakshmana, and Sita. It means “a house made of bamboo, leaves and straws.” Humble abode named after a cottage in Dandaka Forest built by Lord Rama | RSAA Studio Set in the dense old part of the […]

Read More

The Majestic Exterior of the House Embraced the Tenet of Classical Architecture | New Dimension

The majestic exterior of the house embraced the tenet of classical architecture, presenting a symmetrical facade that exuded an air of harmony. The task at hand was to create a dwelling fit for a family of four, along with their diligent support staff. The vision was to craft a residence in the classical style, drawing […]

Read More

Walk-in wardrobe design: Where Fashion Finds Its Home

A well-organized walk-in wardrobe design is important for maintaining an efficient and visually appealing storage space, especially in Indian homes. In India, where space is limited, a walk-in wardrobe allows for optimal space utilization and customization that allows for the proper arrangement of clothing and accessories, ensuring that every item has its designated place. A […]

Read More

The Community Centre Is A Memorial Building For The Client’s Father | Sanjay Puri Architects

As per the brief, The Community Centre is a memorial building for the client’s father, Padmaramji Kularia in Nokha, Rajasthan. The sweeping curvilinear volume rises up from the northeastern corner. The Community Centre Is A Memorial Building For The Client’s Father | Sanjay Puri Architects It further loops around the site and rises up on […]

Read More

The Existing Outhouse Structure Is Transformed Into An Exhibition Space | Square

The existing outhouse structure is transformed into an exhibition space. It is a space where one can host exhibitions, design workshops, fashion pop-up shows, and Sunday brunches. At the same time, it also serves as an office. The Existing Outhouse Structure Is Transformed Into An Exhibition Space | Square The vision behind developing this experience […]

Read More

20 Types of Door Handles for a Stylish Home Upgrade

Types of door handles play a pivotal role in both functionality and aesthetics, offering diverse options to complement various architectural styles and personal preferences. Understanding the plethora of choices can help in selecting the perfect door handle for any space. From traditional lever handles to modern electronic ones, the market boasts an array of designs […]

Read More

A House Extension That Seamlessly Blends With A Rejuvenated Facade | Gangwal PMC

The clients expressed a desire for a house extension that seamlessly blends with a rejuvenated facade and boasts luxurious yet timeless interiors. Right from the start, their preference for a minimal and contemporary design was evident. Additionally, they emphasized the importance of redefining the utility of existing terraces in the overall project vision. The house […]

Read More

50 Exceptional Baluster Design Ideas Suitable For Indian Homes

Baluster design plays a crucial role in architectural aesthetics, particularly in structures like staircases, balconies, and railings. These vertical supports not only provide structural integrity but also contribute significantly to the overall visual appeal of a building or space. Baluster design also vary widely, ranging from simple and utilitarian to intricate and ornate, reflecting different […]

Read More

10 Captivating Wall Texture and Colour Combinations for Indian Homes

Texture and Colour are powerful tools for creating a unique and functional space. They not only enhance the aesthetic appeal but also create an ambience that resonates with style and purpose. These textures and colours can be sleek and modern or rustic and inviting, allowing you to infuse your personality into the walls. They serve […]

Read More

Design Has A Contemporary Approach With A Neutral Material Palette | Inner Value Architects

The Design has a contemporary approach backed by a neutral material palette, bringing out the balance in the rhythm of the spaces, integrating the large garden space, that plugs into a L-shaped built-space. The residence site is a amalgamation of two 400 sq. yards plots, and thus composes to a almost square plot of 800 […]

Read More
  • 10 Thoughtful Kitchen Layout Designs Elevating Culinary Spaces

    Difference Between Street and Avenue: A Thoroughfare Tale